Influence of fabrication method of copper shaped charge liners on the penetration depth into steel targets



  • Nguyen Minh Tuan Viện Công nghệ, Tổng cục Công nghiệp Quốc Phòng
  • Tran Bao Trung Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology
  • Doan Dinh Phuong (Corresponding Author) Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology
  • Luong Van Duong Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology
  • Nguyen Ngoc Linh Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology
  • Nguyen Van Toan Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology



Shaped charge; Copper liner; Penetration depth.


This paper presents the penetration behavior of copper shaped charge liners produced by four different techniques, including deep drawing, deep drawing followed by metal spinning, SPS sintering and SPS sintering followed by metal spinning technique. The results show that the grain size of copper liners has a strong effect on the penetration depth into steel targets. The metal spinning step led to the appearance of the subgrains and the increase of dislocation density and hence, improved the penetration depth of the copper shaped charge liner. Accordingly, the penetration depth of the shaped charge liners produced by deep drawing followed by metal spinning and SPS sintering followed by metal spinning into steel targets reached the highest values, which are about 80 mm. Meanwhile, the penetration depth of the shaped charge using SPS sintered liner is 70.5 mm. The copper liner made by deep drawing produced an unstable depth and was about 50 mm. This work also shows the formation of the subgrains with a width in the range of 300 to 500 nm and a length from 1 to 3 mm in the liners microstructure after metal spinning.


[1]. Naeem, K., A. Hussain, and S. Abbas, "A Review of Shaped Charge Variables for its Optimum Performance". Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research. 9(6): p. 4917-4924, (2019). DOI:

[2]. Borkowski, J., et al., "Application of sintered liners for explosively formed projectile charges". International Journal of Impact Engineering. 118: p. 91-97, (2018). DOI:

[3]. Ahmed, M. and A.Q. Malik, "A Review of Works on Shaped Charges". Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research. 7(5): p. 2098-2103, (2017). DOI:

[4]. Zaki, S., et al., "Effect of liner material and explosive type on penetration effectiveness of shaped charge". Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part L: Journal of Materials: Design and Applications. 233(7): p. 1375-1383, (2018). DOI:

[5]. Held, M., "Liners for Shaped Charges". Journal of Battlefield Technology, 4(3), pp.1-6, (2001).

[6]. Yi, J., et al., "Simulation Study on Expansive Jet Formation Characteristics of Polymer Liner". Materials. 12: p. 744, (2019). DOI:

[7]. Saran, S., O. Ayısıt, and M.S. Yavuz, "Experimental Investigations on Aluminum Shaped Charge Liners". Procedia Engineering. 58: p. 479-486, (2013). DOI:

[8]. Li, W.B., et al., "Effect of the liner material on the shape of dual mode penetrators". Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves. 51(3): p. 387-394, (2015). DOI:

[9]. Walters, W., W. Gooch, and M. Burkins, "The Penetration Resistance of a Titanium Alloy against Jets from Tantalum Shaped Charge Liners". (2000). DOI:

[10]. Elshenawy, T. and Q. Li, "Breakup Time of Zirconium Shaped Charge Jet". Propellants. 38, (2013). DOI:

[11]. Zhang, X., C. Wu, and F. Huang, Penetration of shaped charge jets with tungsten–copper and copper liners at the same explosive-to-liner mass ratio into water. Shock Waves. 20(3): p. 263-267, (2010). DOI:

[12]. Sun, S., et al., "Comparison of Shaped Charge Jet Performance Generated by Machined and Additively Manufactured CuSn10 Liners". Materials (Basel). 14(23), (2021). DOI:

[13]. Leus, V., Y. Khopdòngr, and R. Ceder, "Examination of shaped charge performance with ECAP produced liners". Vol. 2272. 120013, (2020). DOI:

[14]. Petit, J., V. Jeanclaude, and C. Fressengeas, "Effects of liner grain size on shaped - Charge jet performance: A combined experimental/numerical/analytical approach". 134, (2006). DOI:

[15]. Li, X., et al., Study on grain refinement of copper-based liner by vacuum gradient heat treatment process using response surface methodology. Journal of Materials Research and Technology. 15: p. 2345-2354, (2021). DOI:

[16]. Elshenawy, T., S. Soliman, and A. Hawwas, "Influence of electric current intensity on the performance of electroformed copper liner for shaped charge application". Defence Technology. 13(6): p. 439-442, (2017). DOI:

[17]. Jackowski, A. and E. Włodarczyk, "The influence of repressing liners made from sintered copper on jet formation". Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 171(1): p. 21-26, (2006). DOI:

[18]. Hoseini, S.M.J., et al., "Investigation of microstructure and mechanical properties of copper shell produced by shear spinning in different rotation directions". Materials Research Express. 8(6): p. 066521, (2021). DOI:

[19]. Zhang, M., et al., "Structure of copper shaped charge liner evolution law based on die forging process". Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 1507: p. 032036, (2020). DOI:

[20]. Zygmunt, B. and Z. Wilk, "Formation of Jets by Shaped Charges with Metal Powder Liners". Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics. 33, (2008). DOI:

[21]. Walters, W.P., et al. "A Study of Jets From Unsintered-Powder Metal Lined Nonprecision Small-Caliber Shaped Charges". (2001). DOI:

[22]. Zhanlei, W., et al., "Dynamic Consolidation of W-Cu Nano-Alloy and Its Performance as Liner Materials". Rare Metal Materials and Engineering. 43(5): p. 1051-1055, (2014). DOI:

[23]. Zhang, Z.-H., et al., "Ultrafine-grained copper prepared by spark plasma sintering process". Materials Science and Engineering: A. 476(1): p. 201-205, (2008). DOI:

[24]. Zhou, K., et al., "W-Cu composites reinforced by copper coated graphene prepared using infiltration sintering and spark plasma sintering: A comparative study". International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials. 82: p. 91-99, (2019). DOI:

[25]. Welsh B.S., "High Speed Deformation and Break-Up of Shaped Charge Jets". The University of Nottingham, p. 221, (1993).

[26]. Liu, J., et al., "Dynamic Response and Microstructure Evolution of Oxygen-Free High-Conductivity Copper Liner in Explosively Formed Projectile". Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures. 14: p. 2089-2106, (2017). DOI:



How to Cite

Nguyễn Minh, T., T. Trần Bảo, P. Đoàn Đình, Đương Lương Văn, L. Nguyễn Ngọc, and T. Nguyễn Văn. “Influence of Fabrication Method of Copper Shaped Charge Liners on the Penetration Depth into Steel Targets”. Journal of Military Science and Technology, vol. 85, Feb. 2023, pp. 142-51, doi:10.54939/1859-1043.j.mst.85.2023.142-151.



Research Articles