N-Guanylurea dinitramide: Optimal synthesis process, basic properties and spectroscopic data



  • Bui Anh Thuc Institute of Propellant and Explosives
  • Vu Minh Thanh Institute of Chemistry and Materials, Academy of Military Science and Technology
  • Pham Kim Dao Institute of Propellant and Explosives
  • Nguyen Duc Long Institute of Propellant and Explosives
  • Cao Hai Thuong (Corresponding Author) Le Quy Don Technical University




N-Guanylurea dinitramide; Ammonium sulfamate; GUDN; FOX-12; Nitration reaction.


N-Guanylurea dinitramide (GUDN), also known as FOX-12, is indeed a fascinating organic dinitramide salt with high insensitivity and good thermal stability. It shows great promise for use in next-generation insensitive munitions. In this study, GUDN was synthesized through the nitration reaction of ammonium sulfamate salt with an acid mixture (HNO3/H2SO4) and guanylurea salts in water. The optimal conditions for this synthesis have been determined, including reaction temperature at -40 oC, the nitration reaction time of 45 minutes, and specific molar ratios of the components, which include guanylurea sulfate, ammonium sulfamate, and the mixture of sulfuric and nitric acid. Additionally, various properties and spectral data of GUDN, such as FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, DSC-TG, XRD, and UV-Vis, have been thoroughly studied in the referenced article.


[1]. Ang How Ghee, G. Santhosh, “Advances in Energetic Dinitramides – An Emerging Class of Inorganic Oxidizers,” World Scientific, Singapore, (2008).

[2]. Bottaro, J. C, “Recent advances in explosives and solid propellants,” Chemistry and industry, No.7, pp. 249-252, (1996).

[3]. Shiota, K., Izato, Y., Miyake, A. “Analysis of guanylurea dinitramide pyrolysis using DSC/Raman spectroscopy”. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, Vol.156, 105113, (2021). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2021.105113

[4]. Östmark, H., Bemm, U., Bergman, H., & Langlet, A, “N-guanylurea-dinitramide: a new energetic material with low sensitivity for propellants and explosives applications,” Thermochimica Acta, Vol.384, No.(1-2), pp. 253-259, (2002). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-6031(01)00800-0

[5]. Li, C., Ma, F., Sun, J., Sui, H., Yu, Q., Zhao, L., & Yin, Y. “Thermal hazard evaluation of N-guanylurea dinitramide (GUDN) by using kinetic-based simulation approach”. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, Vol.141, pp. 905-913, (2020). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-019-09074-y

[6]. LIJun-qiang, P. Q., WANGKe, X. Q., & XUHui-xiang, F. Z. (2019), “Effect of ADN/GUDN dual oxidizers on the combustion features of nitrate ester plasticized polyether solid propellants,” Chinese Journal of Energetic Materials, Vol.27, No.4, pp.297-303, (2019).

[7]. Stefan, E. K., & Johansson, J, “U.S. Patent Application No. 17/276,513” (2022).

[8]. Johansson, J., Ek, S., & Skarstind, M, “One-step synthesis of ADN from FOX-12,” In 47th International Annual Conference of the Fraunhofer ICT. Karlsruhe, Germany, Vol. 33, (2016).

[9]. Charles, D,“New low-sensitivity modular charge propellant based on GUDN,” In Insensitive munitions and energetic materials technology symposium, Bristol, (2006).

[10]. Klapötke, T. M., & Sabaté, C. M, “The preparation and characterization of guanylurea nitrate and perchlorate salts”. Heteroatom Chemistry: An International Journal of Main Group Elements, Vol.19, No.3, pp. 301-306, (2008). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/hc.20419

[11]. Kumar, Pratim, "An overview on properties, thermal decomposition, and combustion behavior of ADN and ADN based solid propellants," Defence technology, Vol. 14, No. 6, pp. 661-673, (2018). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dt.2018.03.009

[12]. Nazeri, Gh H., Nia M. Fayaz, And Ghobadi P. Key, "Synthesis of ammonium dinitramide by nitration of potassium and ammonium sulfamate. The effect of sulfamate conterion on ADN purity," Iran.J.Chem.Chem. Eng, Vol.27, No.1, pp. 85-89, (2008).

[13]. Mandal, A. K., Kunjir, G. M., Singh, J., Adhav, S. S., Singh, S. K., Pandey, R. K., “Optimization of ammonium sulfamate nitration for the preparation of ammonium dinitramide,” Central European Journal of Energetic Materials, Vol.11, No.1, pp. 83-97, (2014).




How to Cite

Bui Anh Thuc, M. T. Vu, K. D. Pham, Nguyen Duc Long, and H. T. Cao. “N-Guanylurea Dinitramide: Optimal Synthesis Process, Basic Properties and Spectroscopic Data”. Journal of Military Science and Technology, vol. 95, no. 95, May 2024, pp. 55-63, doi:10.54939/1859-1043.j.mst.95.2024.55-63.



Research Articles


Most read articles by the same author(s)