Investigating injector angles to eliminate spray-wall impingement in a manifold port injection system of gasoline engines85 views
Keywords:Injector angle; Wall wetting; Multi-point injection; Intake manifold.
There has been an outstanding improvement in injection technology in the spark ignition (SI) engines’ fuel supply systems, from traditional carburettors with throttle body injection (TBI), manifold port or multi-point injection (MPI) to direct injection (DI). This paper has developed an MPI intake manifold model and investigated fuel injector angles using a multiphase CFD package provided by FloEFD software. A wide range of injector angles from 22 to 30 degrees has been investigated in order to evaluate the influence of the injector angle on the wall-wetting issue, a critical problem of manifold injection systems in SI engines. The intake air pressure differential in the manifold was also evaluated. The results show that the fuel injector angle affects the multiphase flow in the MPI system. The manifold diameter meets the design specifications, and the pressure differential in the manifold is quite small. With an injector angle of 25 degrees, the wall-wetting issue is minimal. This model could be used for further studies on engine performance and emission formation.
. P. X. Pham, D. Q. Vo, and R. N. Jazar, "Development of fuel metering techniques for spark ignition engines," Fuel, vol. 206, pp.701-715, (2017). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2017.06.043
. C. Baumgarten, "Mixture Formation in Internal Combustion Engines" (Heat and Mass Transfer). Springer, pp. 5-46, (2006).
. F. Li, M. Du, and L. Y. c, "Effect of fuel injection parameters on performance characteristics and emissions of a thermoacoustic system," Aerospace Science and Technology, p. 10, (2021).
. X. Wang, K. Li, and W. Su, "Experimental and numerical investigations on internal flow characteristics of diesel nozzle under real fuel injection conditions," Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, vol. 42, pp. 204-211, (2012). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2012.04.022
. D. N. Malkhede and H. Khalane, "Maximizing Volumetric Efficiency of IC Engine through Intake Manifold Tuning," presented at the SAE Technical Paper Series, (2015). DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/2015-01-1738
. V. Harantová, Z. Otáhalová, and M. Kasanický, "Estimation of fuel consumption based on data from opening fuel injector valve," 13th International Scientific Conference on Sustainable, Modern and Safe Transport, (2019). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trpro.2019.07.036
. F. Payri, V. Bermúdez, R. Payri, and F. J. Salvador, "The influence of cavitation on the internal flow and the spray characteristics in diesel injection nozzles," Fuel, vol. 83, no. 4-5, pp. 419-431, (2004). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2003.09.010
. A. Manmadhachary, M. Santosh Kumar, and Y. Ravi Kumar, "Design&manufacturing of spiral intake manifold to improve Volument efficiency of injection diesel engine byAM process," Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 1084-1090, (2017). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2017.01.123
. L. O. F. T. Alves, M. G. D. d. Santos, A. B. U. Junior, J. H. Guerrero, J. C. d. L. Júnior, and V. Abramchuk, "Design of a new intake manifold of a single cylinder engine with three stages," SAE Technical Paper Series, (2017).
. S. Ghodke and S. Bari, "Effect of Integrating Variable Intake Runner Diameter and Variable Intake Valve Timing on an SI Engine’s Performance," SAE Technical Paper Series, (2018). DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/2018-01-0380
. P. Pogorevc and B. Kegl, "Intake system design procedure for engines with special requirements," Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, vol. 220, no. 2, pp. 241-252, (2016). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1243/095440706X72763
. M. A. Ceviz and M. Akın, "Design of a new SI engine intake manifold with variable length plenum," Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 51, no. 11, pp. 2239-2244, (2010). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2010.03.018
. S. P. Singh, V. Kumar, D. Gupta, and N. Kumar, "Influence of intake runner cross section design on the engine performance parameters of a four stroke, naturally aspirated carbureted SI engine," The International Journal of Advanced Culture Technology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1-12, (2015). DOI: https://doi.org/10.17703/IJACT.2015.3.1.1
. H. Jagtap, C. Vinayak, and R. Koli, "Intake System Design Approach for Turbocharged MPFI SI Engine," SAE international: Symposium on International Automotive Technology, (2011). DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/2011-26-0088
. J. Kim, M. Yadav, and S. Kim, "Characteristics of Secondary Flow Induced by 90-Degree Elbow in Turbulent Pipe Flow," Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 229-239, (2014). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/19942060.2014.11015509
. Q. H. Mazumder, "CFD Analysis of Single and Multiphase Flow Characteristics in Elbow," Scientific Research, p. 5, (2012). DOI: https://doi.org/10.4236/eng.2012.44028
. J.-S. Kim, W.-J. Lee, V. C. Pham, and J.-H. Choi, "A Numerical Study on Fuel Injection Optimization for a ME-GI Dual-Fuel Marine Engine Based on CFD Analysis," Applied sciences, p. 26, (2022).
. M. Guducu, "CFD analysis of nozzle effect on jet formation," Aeronautical Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, 64, (2016).
. X. Rangshu, "CFD simulation calculation of inlet manifold modification designCFD simulation calculation of inlet manifold modification design," International Conference on Electric Information and Control Engineering, (2011).
. V. Chintala and K. A. Subramanian, "A CFD (computational fluid dynamics) study for optimization of gas injector orientation for performance improvement of a dual-fuel diesel engine," Energy, vol. 57, pp. 709-721, (2013). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2013.06.009
. S. Jafarmadar, S. Khalilarya, S. Shafee, and R. Barzegar, "Modeling the effect of spray/wall impingement on combustion process and emission of DI diesel engine," Thermal Science, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 23-33, (2009). DOI: https://doi.org/10.2298/TSCI0903023J
. M. L. G. C. Y. J. a. Y. Ma, "Numerical Simulation of Flows in Multi-cylinder Diesel Engine Inlet Manifold and its Application," SAE_NA Technical Paper Series, p. 8, (2001).
. A. Sharma, A. Islam, and P. K. Singh, "Performance Analysis of intake manifold for injection Systems of CNG Engine," European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, vol. 7, no. 4, p. 8, (2020).
. C. d. L. R. Siqueira, M. P. Kessler, L. A. R. d. Araujo, and E. C. Rodrigues, "Three-dimensional Transient Simulation of an Intake Manifold using CFD Techniques," SAE Technical Paper Series, (2006). https://www.sae.org/publications/technical-papers/content/2006-01-2633/?PC=DL2BUY DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/2006-01-2633
. J. Sevik et al., "Influence of Injector Location on Part-Load Performance Characteristics of Natural Gas Direct-Injection in a Spark Ignition Engine," SAE International Journal of Engines, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 2262-2271, (2016). DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/2016-01-2364
. H. A. Mahmood, A. O. Al-Sulttani, O. H. Attia, and N. M. Adam, "A numerical study to improve the position and angle of the producer gas injector inside the intake manifold to minimize emissions and efficiency enhancement of a bi engine," EUREKA: Physics and Engineering, no. 5, pp. 100-109, (2021). DOI: https://doi.org/10.21303/2461-4262.2021.002045
. J. Suresh Kumar, V. Ganesan, J. M. Mallikarjuna, and S. Govindarajan, "Spray Characteristics of a Fuel Injector: A CFD Study," Proceedings of the FISITA 2012 World Automotive Congress, (2013). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-33841-0_23
. Z.-Y. Sun, G.-X. Li, C. Chen, Y.-S. Yu, and G.-X. Gao, "Numerical investigation on effects of nozzle’s geometric parameters on the flow and the cavitation characteristics within injector’s nozzle for a high-pressure common-rail DI diesel engine," Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 89, pp. 843-861, (2015). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2014.10.047
. H. Guo, S. Zhou, M. Shreka, and Y. Feng, "Effect of Pre-Combustion Chamber Nozzle Parameters on the Performance of a Marine 2-Stroke Dual Fuel Engine," Processes, vol. 7, no. 12, (2019). DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7120876
. M. Sonachalam and V. Manieniyan, "Optimization of critical angle, distance and flow rate of secondary fuel injection in DI diesel engine using computational fluid dynamics," SN Applied Sciences, vol. 3, no. 1, (2021). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s42452-020-04138-3
. K. B. Showry and A. V. S. R. Raju, "Simulation of injection angles on combustion performance using multiple injection strategy in HSDI diesel engine by CFD," International Journal of Engineering and Technology, vol. 2, no. 4, p. 6, (2010).