Investigation on beamforming solution for multi-receiver synthetic aperture sonar using CW pulse with sound velocity profiles in Vietnam’s sea





Synthetic aperture sonar; Beamforming; Equivalent sound velocity.


This paper proposes a novel beamforming solution for multi-receiver synthetic aperture sonar (SAS), which uses gated continuous-wave (CW) pulses, based on the average value of equivalent sound velocity (ESV) when considering the change of the sound velocity with depth. The main beam can be steered to desirable positions with the proposed solution. Besides, the computation time for the phase distribution from the proposed solution reduces compared with the conventional solution by dividing the propagation trajectory into straight lines, where the sound velocity is unchanged. The effectiveness of the proposed solution is validated and evaluated by the results of the beam pattern and the time for determining the phase distribution with the sound velocity profiles (SVPs) in Vietnam’s sea.


[1]. N. Kolev, "Sonar Systems," InTech Croatia, pp.3-25, (2011). DOI:

[2]. X. Zhang et al, "BP algorithm for the multi-receiver SAS," IET Radar Sonar Navig., Vol. 13, iss. 5, pp. 830-838, February, (2019), DOI: 10.1049/iet-rsn.2018.5468. DOI:

[3]. M. P. Hayes and P. T. Gough, "Synthetic Aperture Sonar: A Review of Current Status," in IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 207-224, July, (2009), doi: 10.1109/JOE.2009.2020853. DOI:

[4]. P. C. Etter, “Underwater Acoustic Modeling and Simulation,” Taylor & Francis Group, pp.323-324, (2013).

[5]. R. E. Hansen, T. O. Sæbø, H. J. Callow, and P. E. Hagen, “The SENSOTEK Synthetic Aperture Sonar - results from HUGIN AUV trials,” Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, pp. 11-12, (2007).

[6]. R. E. Hansen, et al., "Challenges in Seafloor Imaging and Mapping with Synthetic Aperture Sonar," in IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 3677-3687, Oct., (2011), doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2011.2155071. DOI:

[7]. N. D. Tinh and T. D. Khanh, “A New Back-projection Algorithm in Frequency Domain for Multi-receiver Synthetic Aperture Sonar,” Proc. 2021 8th NAFOSTED Conference on Information and Computer Science (NICS), Hanoi, pp. 39-44, (2021), doi: 10.1109/NICS54270.2021.9701507. DOI:

[8]. D. W. Hawkins and P. T. Gough, “Temporal Doppler effects in SAS,” Proc. Inst. Acoust. 26(5), pp.1-10, (2004).




How to Cite

Tinh, N. “Investigation on Beamforming Solution for Multi-Receiver Synthetic Aperture Sonar Using CW Pulse With Sound Velocity Profiles in Vietnam’s Sea”. Journal of Military Science and Technology, no. 81, Aug. 2022, pp. 14-20, doi:10.54939/1859-1043.j.mst.81.2022.14-20.



Research Articles